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Hybrid war is not declared. Instead, it is just fought. The countries under attack are quite often unable to understand that they fall victim to hybrid influence. This is first of all a war of perceptions and the main assault is directed at this juncture. The aim is to keep as long as possible a state of ambiguity and confusion among the country’s leadership and society. The subversive role of local actors, who are supporting the aggressor’s activity, is particularly damaging in this context. The first task of such actors is to vigorously and even aggressively deny the presence of whatever hybrid activity is occurring against their own country. If this situation lasts for too long, it is possible that one day it becomes too late for the state under
The Growing Russian Defense Capabilities along the NATO Eastern Flank – a Challenge to National and Allied Security Mihail Naydenov Russia is pursuing today a revanchist policy agenda aimed at restoring the spheres of influence of the former Soviet Union. This is taking place at the detriment of ex-Soviet republics as well as of Central and Eastern European countries, including Bulgaria. The Russian activity is an unambiguous challenge to national and allied security. In order to achieve its goal to restore the spheres of influence of the former Soviet Union, Moscow is modernizing its armed forces as one of the main instruments at its disposal for carrying out its strategy. Despite the fact that Russia is still dependent to a great extent on inherited Soviet platforms,
The views expressed in this article are those of the author only and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Bulgaria or the Bulgarian Government. Hybrid war is not declared. It is being fought, instead. This is the essence of the strategy of today’s actors, be they state or non-state, in their aggressive hybrid warfare campaigns. The countries under attack are quite often unable to understand what is really happening on the ground until it might be too late. Since the end of the Cold War Russia has been pursuing an intended and calculated policy of keeping enough influence in Bulgaria to have control over national decisions. It has achieved this objective primarily through economic tools as