In the era of fake news, democracies need to protect themselves from a deluge of disinformation. False facts and unsubstantiated rumors not only provide fertile ground for political extremists to fool the public, they can also discredit and undermine the legitimacy of democratic institutions. European countries facing general elections this year have become particularly vulnerable and concerned about fake news that can influence the outcome. Officials and analysts are looking at the conduct of the US elections as a negative precedent. American intelligence sources are convinced that Russian professionals created false stories to influence the election in favor of Donald Trump. Fake news was sent through Facebook, Google, Twitter, and other social media outlets, although no one can accurately measure how it swayed voters. With Germany facing general
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The cutting edge of the Russian propaganda in America, Bulgarian Daniel Ivandzhiyski, was rarely used for hybrid operations in Bulgaria. In practice, his financial blog Zero Hedge is almost unknown at home. However, a few days ago Mr. Ivandzhiyski was activated in Bulgaria by Boyan Chukov, a former communist foreign intelligence officer. Apparently, Russian centers for information war against Bulgaria have been experiencing difficulties and were forced to finally release Zero Hedge for domestic consumption. Mr. Chukov’s position is particularly important to the Kremlin, as is evident from the title of an article published in the openly pro-Russian website Pogled (Overview): “Berlin and Sofia together against the “hawks “. Russia was particularly unnerved by the possibility of joint actions by NATO countries and Ukraine in the Black Sea. Prime