A while ago the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar, Sheikh Ahmed al-Tayeb, opined publicly that Muslims were completely innocent of the sins of colonialism and gave the example of Al-Andalus, (Andalusia) as an example of the allegedly peaceful and equitable coexistence of the three great religions – Christianity, Judaism and Islam, under Muslim domination. This is, of course, a long standing Muslim propaganda belied by the simple historical fact that both Christians and Jews in Spain under Muslim rule had to pay the infidel tax jizya as a mandatory indication of their subservient status. For people in the Balkans, it is not necessary to go all the way to Spain to find out that Al-Tayeb’s insinuations are nothing but a bold-faced lie. We have the well-documented and centuries-old experience of
As Turkey slides closer and closer to the economic precipice, it is worth remembering Erdogan’s promises of resurrecting the Ottoman Empire as the ultimate goal of his rule. By 2023, the hundredth year anniversary of the establishment of the Turkish Republic by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Turkey, Erdogan claimed, would have recaptured the economic power and world-wide reach of the Ottoman Empire in its glory days. Needless to say, this has never been anything but a baseless phantasy, but half of the Turks and many other Muslims believed it to the extent of following Erdogan blindly. It is worth, therefore, revisiting the history of the empire to find out that for most of its existence the Ottoman Empire was a historical anachronism with such glaring systemic weaknesses that it only
This article is based in part on Alex Alexiev, Radical Islam and its Threat to the West and the Muslim World, Hudson Institute, Washington D.C., 2011. Islamists fervently believe that the radical interpretation of the Islamic religion they profess is the only possible true inter-pretention of Islam and have sought precedents in the long history of the religion to prove their point. There have indeed been such precedents on several occasions in the past, but on the whole, modern Islamism is unmistakably a modern totalitarian doctrine that is much closer to its totalitarian brethren Nazism and communism than to Muhammad’s teachings. This becomes very clear by an examination of the key doctrinal precepts of Islamism as developed by its intellectual progenitors and even more by the incontestible evidence
The article first published in americanthinker.com on 06/26/2018. By far the most interesting thing about yesterday’s Turkish elections were the endless speculations by pundits left and right about what would happen if Erdogan were to lose. These clueless if numerous pontificators forgot to ask themselves a simple question: when was the last time an Islamist dictator in full control of state power lost an election? Mindless as they are, these idle meditations have little to tell us about Turkey, but a lot of the West’s (and Europe’s especially) failure or unwillingness to understand what Erdogan is and was all about. For NATO and the West, the inevitable harsh payment due is just around the corner. In the meantime, Turkey has a new sultan that can and will do whatever
The article first published in americanthinker.com on 10/23/2017. Though Western Europe and Washington are reluctant to fess up to this unfortunate fact, Turkey under Recep Tayyip Erdogan has long ago given up even the pretence of being a democratic polity and is openly pursuing policies detrimental to democracy, the rule of law and Western security considerations. In short, Turkey has become an Islamist dictatorship every bit as inimical to Western interests as Iran, except for being allowed by the West to maintain the charade that it is still a member of NATO and the western community of nations. This is a dangerous charade that would inevitably come back to haunt us. For the reality is that Erdogan the Islamist, has ambitions that go beyond Turkey and even the Middle East. Well
The global outbreak of “The Great Depression” in 2008 coincided with a new political order in the region, which resulted from the non-interventionist US foreign policy of the Obama administration. It was then that Turkey became an ambitious regional player. In 2009, in his book The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century, George Friedman, founder and chairman of Geopolitical Futures and former chairman of Strategic Forecasting, predicted that Turkey will seek to return to its former Ottoman glory and will in thirty years catch up with Japan economically. Turkey has huge advantages compared to any other country in the world. It is both a secular and a Muslim country. The country is not isolated geographically and is on the crossway of three continents.
In the late 19th century, several local archaeological societies were founded in different Bulgarian towns and in 1901 the Bulgarian Archaeological Society was established, immediately becoming an important center of the archaeological studies that further strengthened the institutional backbone of the Bulgarian archaeology. After the liberation from the Ottoman Empire, there was a significant interest in the mediaeval archaeology of the First and the Second Bulgarian Kingdoms, given that the new Principality of Bulgaria was considered as their political successor. Thus, in the 1880s archaeological excavations were carried out in Veliko Tarnovo, the last mediaeval Bulgarian capital, and in 1899 – 1900 excavations in Pliska, the first mediaeval Bulgarian capital, were launched by Karel Škorpil. In that period the interest of the foreign scholars in the Bulgarian archaeology
Almost every year Bulgarian archaeologists are making sensational discoveries which attract the attention not only of most Bulgarians, but also of international scholars and the public worldwide. People usually know only about the recent archaeological endeavors in Bulgaria, so in several consecutive articles I will try to present the entire exciting history of archaeology in Bulgaria, from its early beginnings up to the present day. Many readers would be surprised to learn that the first excavations in the Bulgarian lands occurred in the late 16th and 17th centuries, when Bulgaria was part of the Ottoman Empire and long before the study of the classical world became an actual academic discipline distinct from early modern European antiquarianism. The earliest record was given by Reinhold Lubenau, a German pharmacist and traveler