Odessos was founded by Ionian Greek colonists from Miletus during the years 585–550 BC. The Greeks established their colony on the site of a Thracian settlement with the same name. Both Greeks and Thracians coexisted peacefully in the colony and in its vicinity, and there is strong evidence of bilateral trade relations and cultural interaction. Odessos was governed by the Boule (City Council) and Demos (Assembly). A monumental Doric temple was built during the second half of the 6th century BC. However, until the middle of the 4th century BC, Odessos remained a relatively small town, although its port was quite important for maintaining trade relations between the ancient Greeks and the Thracians. The first fortification wall was built around the middle of the 4th century BC, and the
The speculative interpretations on the secretive nature of the trip of Gazexport’s top managers to Sofia last Friday, beyond doubt, will build up due to the total absence of facts and details. This is an inevitable consequence as one compares the media frenzy around the visits of the top brass at Gazprom to the country on previous occasions. To begin with, the decision to keep the meetings with Bulgartransgaz secretive reflects the content and the range of topics covered. The classic is: both sides need to agree to keep the exchange out of the public record. Gazprom and BTG, as hosts, have no interest in disclosing details, as the negotiations cover a very sensitive topic – the extension of Turkish Stream through Bulgaria. Two events have marred the
19.9.2018, ICIS, Aura Sabadus Bulgarian gas incumbent Bulgargaz has failed to clinch more attractive terms from its supplier Gazprom despite a recent EU anti-trust investigation, a former Bulgarian ambassador to Russia told ICIS in an interview. The investigation would have provided Bulgargaz significant support in its negotiations with the Russian producer. Speaking to ICIS this week, Ilian Vassilev, said Bulgargaz could have requested price reviews and more lenient terms linked to take-or-pay as part of a long-term 3 billion cubic metre/year supply contract with Gazprom. But, instead, Bulgargaz was acting as an “extension” of the Russian producer, passively ac- cepting existing terms, Vassilev said. Vassilev, who is currently managing partner at eastern European advisory firm Innovative Energy Solutions, said the incumbent had not asked
The creation of Freemasonry lodges and Supreme Councils in our country is becoming business and politics The Russian hybrid war in Bulgaria has a new important target – the unity of Bulgarian Freemasonry. After breaking this unity, the next step would be their subsequent subordination to Kremlin interests and the resulting domination of Russian Masons in the Balkans. The first considerable breakthrough is already a fact – on May 5th this year a constituent assembly for the installation of a new Second Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite was held in Plovdiv. It elected as Grand Commander a very controversial person – Ivan Sariev, who until a year ago was the Grand Master of the local Masons. Just a few weeks later, on
The earliest traces of human occupation in present-day Plovdiv date back to the Neolithic period in the 6th millennium BC. Later on, during the 1st millennium BC the area was occupied by the Thracians. According to some Greek sources, the name of the Thracian town that existed on that place was Eumolpia, after the name of Eumolpos, a mythical Thracian king. In 342 BC, the Thracian town was conquered by Philip of Macedon who reconstructed and enlarged the urban area, built monumental fortification walls, settled a Macedonian military garrison there and renamed the settlement to Philippopolis, or “the Town of Philip” in his own honor. The local Thracians called the town Pulpudeva, which was the Thracian translation of Philipopolis, a name later inherited by the Bulgars in the Early
The Eurozone effect Bulgaria’s entry into NATO is not a betrayal to Russia, but its continued membership is Alexander Dugin Intellectual guru of Russia’s Euro-Asian doctrine Let’s consider the reference to the Russian threat when achieving the other key goal of Bulgarian foreign and monetary policy – membership in the Eurozone. The metrics of the accession-ready status are not just embodied in a set of formal criteria but reflect a generic reference to key system indicators, including the resilience of the economy to external shocks, the ability to sustain high growth and wealth generation rates; capability of institutions to provide efficient governance, mitigate risks and stick to obligations; and capacity of citizens to profit from rights, opportunities and cope with the challenges of “life in the
During the communist era Bulgaria was ruled exclusively by the means of terror and fear. The terror was initiated and established immediately after Red Army tanks invaded the country in early September 1944 and effectively the country became Soviet-occupied territory. The newly formed government, propelled under the disguise of the anti-fascist struggle, joined by the local communists and often acting together with regular criminals freshly released from prison, executed thousands of people on the spot. Many more were executed later under the auspices of the so-called People Court, which was the Bulgarian version of the Stalinist Trial Courts. The main instrument of this massive and pervasive terror from early on was its unpredictability and arbitrariness. The goal was to crash any form of resistance against the Communist State which
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